Change 1 3-1
WELDING SHOP PRACTICES
3-1. General. Welding is the process of joining metal
by fusing the materials while they are in a molten state.
The following general paragraphs describe welding shop
rules, types of welding, welding materials, aluminum
welding, magnesium welding, corrosion-resistant steel
and nickel- chromium-iron alloy welding, welding on air-
craft, and brazing and silver soldering.
3-2. Shop Rules. The practices and procedures
described in this chapter pertain to the manufacturing
and repair functions of aviation activities and are applica-
ble to all levels of maintenance. Because of the many
types of Army aircraft, each shop within the manufactur-
ing and repair section must, of necessity, have personnel
trained in general practices and procedures to the extent
that different type and model aircraft do not upset a
smooth running shop.
a. Responsibility. All supervisory personnel are
responsible for a continuing and effective shop safety
program. To implement and maintain this program, shop
supervisors will utilize bulletin boards, signs, and any
other effective method. Shop personnel will cooperate in
the shop safety program by making helpful recommen-
dations, and continually exercising care and caution in
the operation of all shop equipment. All shop personnel
will strive to improve the safety program and be espe-
cially alert to observe and correct hazardous conditions
and unsafe shop practices. All accidents, no matter how
minor, shall be reported to the shop supervisor, and all
published instructions regarding safety shall be strictly
adhered to. Also, safety engineers and safety officers will
ensure that proper safety procedures are adhered to in
accordance with AR 385-10, Army Safety Program. The
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1971, OSHA
1910.251; all applicable fire codes, NFPA 410; and other
accepted civilian and military safety practices.
b. Shop Housekeeping. Housekeeping is the yard-
stick by which the shops are judged. A clean, well-ar-
ranged shop is a safe shop and reflects credit on all
personnel concerned with its operation. The following
shop practices shall be observed:
Oil pans or drip pans shall be used where
leaking oil, grease, and similar materials may cause
hazardous accumulations on equipment or floors. All
spills shall be cleaned up immediately. Approved sweep-
ing compound may be used to remove these materials
from the floor.
Floors shall not be cleaned with volatile or
flammable liquids. Fire hazard which may
damage equipment may result.
Floors shall be maintained smooth and
clean, free of all obstructions and slippery substances.
Holes and irregularities in floors shall be repaired to
maintain a level surface free from tripping hazards.
All unnecessary materials on walls shall be
removed and projections shall be kept to a minimum.
Aisles shall be clearly defined and kept free
of hazardous obstructions. Where possible, aisles shall
be suitably marked by painting.
All machines, work benches, aisles, etc.,
shall be adequately illuminated.
c. Safety. The various types of welding operations
create numerous health and fire hazards unless proper
precautions are exercised. The harmful light rays pro-
duced by welding flames and arcs may seriously injure
the eyes and burn the skin. Poisonous fumes and gases
which may cause serious illness are produced in welding
operations. The skin may be burned by splashing metal,
hot sparks, welding flame or arc, and hot objects which
are handled. Severe electric shock is possible from elec-
trically powered welding apparatus. The flame- and
heat-producing aspects of welding create a serious fire
and explosion hazard wherever welding is done in the
vicinity of flammable liquids and gases. In view of the
numerous possibilities for injury and damage in welding
operations, it is essential that safe practices and stan-
dards be observed. The following paragraphs explain
welding safety practices.